## Wednesday, November 11, 2020

### Visualize the Dictionary of Obscure Words with T-SNE

I recently published on a wrapper around The Dictionary of Obscure Words (originally from this website http://phrontistery.info) for Python and in this post we'll see how to create a visualization to highlight few entries from the dictionary using the dimensionality reduction technique called T-SNE. The dictionary is available on github at this address https://github.com/JustGlowing/obscure_words and can be installed as follows:
```pip install git+https://github.com/JustGlowing/obscure_words
```
We can now import the dictionary and create a vectorial representation of each word:
```import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer, CountVectorizer
from sklearn.manifold import TSNE

words = np.array(list(obscure_dict.keys()))
definitions = np.array(list(obscure_dict.values()))

vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer(stop_words=None)
X = vectorizer.fit_transform(definitions)

projector = TSNE(random_state=0)
XX = projector.fit_transform(X)
```
In the snippet above, we compute a Tf-Idf representation using the definition of each word. This gives us a vector for each word in our dictionary, but each of these vectors has many elements as the total number of words used in all the definitions. Since we can't plot all the features extracted, we reduce our data to 2 dimensions we use T-SNE. We have now a mapping that allows us to place each word in a point of a bi-dimensional space. There's one problem remaining, how can we plot the words in a way that we can still read them? Here's a solution:
```from sklearn.cluster import KMeans
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.metrics import pairwise_distances

def textscatter(x, y, text, k=10):
X = np.array([x, y]).T
clustering = KMeans(n_clusters=k)
scaler = StandardScaler()
clustering.fit(scaler.fit_transform(X))
centers = scaler.inverse_transform(clustering.cluster_centers_)
selected = np.argmin(pairwise_distances(X, centers), axis=0)
plt.scatter(x, y, s=6, c=clustering.predict(scaler.transform(X)), alpha=.05)
for i in selected:
plt.text(x[i], y[i], text[i], fontsize=10)

plt.figure(figsize=(16, 16))
textscatter(XX[:, 0], XX[:, 1],
[w+'\n'+d for w, d in zip(words, definitions)], 20)
plt.show()
```
In the function textscatter we segment all the points created at the previous steps in k clusters using K-Means, then we plot the word related to the center of cluster (and also its definion). Given the properties of K-Means we know that the centers are distant from each other and with the right choice of k we can maximize the number of words we can display. This is the result of the snippet above:
(click on the figure to see the entire chart)

## Monday, June 29, 2020

### Solving the Travelling Salesman Problem with MiniSom

Have you ever heard of the Travelling Salesman Problem? I'm pretty sure you do, but let's refresh our mind looking at its formulation: "Given a list of points and the distances between each pair of points, what is the shortest possible path that visits each point and returns to the starting point?".
What makes this problem so famous and so studied is the fact that it has no "quick" solution as the complexity of calculating the best path increases adding more points. And the complexity increases so fast that, even with modern hardware, it can be impossible to compute an exact solution in a reasonable time. In more rigorous terms, it is an NP-hard problem. Many heuristics are known to solve this problem and in this post we will see a solution based on Self-organizing Maps (SOM). A SOM is a Neural Network that is capable of mapping an input point into a bi-dimnsional space placing points that are close to each other into the same area. Hence, the idea to solve our problem is to train the SOM in order to map the points to visit in single dimension map and visit the points from the one mapped to the first cell (the one on the left) to the last cell (on the right). Points that are mapped to the same cell are visited consecutively.

Let's generate a set of points to test this idea:
```import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

np.random.RandomState(10)
N_points = 20
N_neurons = N_points*2
t = np.linspace(0, np.pi*2, N_points)
x = np.cos(t)+(np.random.rand(N_points)-.5)*.3
y = np.sin(t)*.8+(np.random.rand(N_points)-.5)*.2
points = np.array([x,y]).T
plt.scatter(x, y)
```

We can now import MiniSom, our favorite implementation of the Self_Organizing Maps, and see what path it's able to produce:
```from minisom import MiniSom

som = MiniSom(1, N_neurons*2, 2, sigma=10,
neighborhood_function='gaussian', random_seed=50)
max_iter = 2000
som.pca_weights_init(points)

paths_x = []
paths_y = []
for i in np.arange(max_iter):
i_point = i % len(points)
som.update(points[i_point], som.winner(points[i_point]), i, max_iter)
visit_order = np.argsort([som.winner(p) for p in points])
visit_order = np.concatenate((visit_order, [visit_order]))
paths_x.append(points[visit_order][:,0])
paths_y.append(points[visit_order][:,1])

plt.scatter(x, y, label='point to visit')
plt.plot(paths_x[-1], paths_y[-1],
'C3', linewidth=2, label='path')
```

In the snippet above we initialized the SOM and run 2000 training iterations (check this out to discover how that works). At each iteration we have saved the path found and visualized the last solution. As we can see, the line covers all the points and it's easy to see that it's the best possible path with just a glance. However, it's interesting to see how the solution evolves at each iteration:
```from matplotlib.animation import FuncAnimation
from IPython.display import HTML

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
plt.scatter(x, y, label='point to visit')
ln, = plt.plot([], [], 'C3', linewidth=2, label='path')
plt.legend()

def update(frame):
ln.set_data(paths_x[frame], paths_y[frame])
plt.title('iteration = %d' % frame)
return ln,

ani = FuncAnimation(fig, update, frames=np.arange(max_iter),
interval=10, repeat=False, blit=False)
HTML(ani.to_html5_video())
```

Here we note that the initial path is very messy and presents various loops and that the more the network is trained the more optimal the solution becomes. Notice that the snippet above uses the object HTML from the IPython library and it will automatically display the video if a Jupyter notebook is used. The video can be saved in a specific location using ani.save(filename.mp4).

## Sunday, May 17, 2020

### Neural Networks Regularization made easy with sklearn and matplotlib

Using regularization has many benefits, the most common are reduction of overfitting and solving multicollinearity issues. All of this is covered very well in literature, especially in (Hastie et all). Howerver, wihout touching too many details we can have a very straigthforward interpretation of regularization. Regularization is a way to constrain a model in order to learn less from the data. In this post we will experimentally show what are the effects of regularization on a Neural Network (Multilayer Perceptron) validating this interpretation.

Let's define a goal for our Neural Network. We have a dataset H and we want to build a model able to reconstruct the same data. More formally, we want to build a function f that takes in input H and returns the same values or an approximation close as possible to H. We can say that we want f to minimize the following error

To begin our experiment we build a data matrix H that contains the coordinate of a stylized star:
```import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

x= [np.cos(np.pi/2), 2/5*np.cos(np.pi/2+np.pi/5), np.cos(np.pi/2+2*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.cos(np.pi/2+3*np.pi/5), np.cos(np.pi/2+4*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.cos(3*np.pi/2), np.cos(np.pi/2+6*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.cos(np.pi/2+7*np.pi/5), np.cos(np.pi/2+8*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.cos(np.pi/2+9*np.pi/5), np.cos(np.pi/2)]

y=[np.sin(np.pi/2), 2/5*np.sin(np.pi/2+np.pi/5), np.sin(np.pi/2+2*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.sin(np.pi/2+3*np.pi/5), np.sin(np.pi/2+4*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.sin(3*np.pi/2), np.sin(np.pi/2+6*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.sin(np.pi/2+7*np.pi/5), np.sin(np.pi/2+8*np.pi/5),
2/5*np.sin(np.pi/2+9*np.pi/5), np.sin(np.pi/2)]

xp = np.linspace(0, 1, len(x))
np.interp(2.5, xp, x)
x = np.log(np.interp(np.linspace(0, 1, len(x)*10), xp, x)+1)

yp = np.linspace(0, 1, len(y))
np.interp(2.5, yp, y)
y = np.interp(np.linspace(0, 1, len(y)*10), yp, y)
#y[::2] += .1

H = np.array([x, y]).T
plt.plot(H[:,0], H[:,1], '-o')
```

Now the matrix H contains the x coordinates of our star in the first column and the y coordinates in the second. With the help of sklearn, we can now train a Neural Network and plot the result:
```from sklearn.neural_network import MLPRegressor
from sklearn.preprocessing import minmax_scale

H = scale(H)

plt.figure()
f = MLPRegressor(hidden_layer_sizes=(200, 200, 200), alpha=0)
f.fit(H, H)
result = f.predict(H)
plt.plot(result[:,0], result[:,1], 'C3', linewidth=3, label='Neural Network')
plt.plot(H[:,0], H[:,1], 'o', alpha=.3, label='original')
plt.legend()
#plt.xlim([-0.1, 1.1])
#plt.ylim([-0.1, 1.1])
plt.show()
```

In the snippet above we created a Neural Network with 3 layers of 200 neurons. Then, we trained the model using H as both input and output data. In the chart we compare the original data with the estimation. It's easy to see that there are small differences between the two stars but they are very close.
Here's important to notice that we initialized MLPRegressor using alpha=0. This parameter controls the regularization of the model and the higher its value, the more regularization we apply. To understand how alpha affects the learning of the model we need to add a term to the computation of the error that was just introduced:

where W is a matrix of all the weights in the network. The error not only takes in account the difference between the ouput of the function and the data, but also the size of weights of the connections of the network. Hence, the higher alpha, the less the model is free to learn. If we set alpha to 20 in our experiment we have the following result:

We still achie an approximation of the star but the output of our model is smaller than before and the edges of the star are smoother.
Increasing alpha gradually is a good way to understand the effects of regularization:
```from matplotlib.animation import FuncAnimation
from IPython.display import HTML

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
ln, = plt.plot([], [], 'C3', linewidth=3, label='Neural Network')
plt.plot(H[:,0], H[:,1], 'o', alpha=.3, label='original')
plt.legend()

def update(frame):
f = MLPRegressor(hidden_layer_sizes=(200, 200, 200), alpha=frame)
f.fit(H, H)
result = f.predict(H)
ln.set_data(result[:,0], result[:,1])
plt.title('alpha = %.2f' % frame)
return ln,

ani = FuncAnimation(fig, update, frames=np.linspace(0, 40, 100), blit=True)
HTML(ani.to_html5_video())
```

Here we vary alpha from 0 to 40 and plot the result for each value. We notice here that not only the star gets smaller and smoother as alpha increases but also that the network tends to preserve long lines as much as possible getting away from the edges which account less on error function. Finally we see that the result degenerates into a point when alpha is too high.